This documentation covers IPython versions 6.0 and higher. Beginning with version 6.0, IPython stopped supporting compatibility with Python versions lower than 3.3 including all versions of Python 2.7.

If you are looking for an IPython version compatible with Python 2.7, please use the IPython 5.x LTS release and refer to its documentation (LTS is the long term support release).


IO related utilities.

1 Class

class, mode='w', channel='stdout')

Bases: object

A class to duplicate an output stream to stdout/err.

This works in a manner very similar to the Unix ‘tee’ command.

When the object is closed or deleted, it closes the original file given to it for duplication.

__init__(file_or_name, mode='w', channel='stdout')

Construct a new Tee object.

  • file_or_name (filename or open filehandle (writable)) – File that will be duplicated
  • mode (optional, valid mode for open()) – If a filename was give, open with this mode.
  • channel (str, one of ['stdout', 'stderr']) –

Close the file and restore the channel.


Flush both channels.


Write data to both channels.

6 Functions, default=None, interrupt=None)

Asks a question and returns a boolean (y/n) answer.

If default is given (one of ‘y’,’n’), it is used if the user input is empty. If interrupt is given (one of ‘y’,’n’), it is used if the user presses Ctrl-C. Otherwise the question is repeated until an answer is given.

An EOF is treated as the default answer. If there is no default, an exception is raised to prevent infinite loops.

Valid answers are: y/yes/n/no (match is not case sensitive)., ext='.py')

Make a temporary python file, return filename and filehandle.

  • src (string or list of strings (no need for ending newlines if list)) – Source code to be written to the file.
  • ext (optional, string) – Extension for the generated file.

It is the caller’s responsibility to close the open file and unlink it.

Return type:

(filename, open filehandle)*args, **kwargs)

DEPRECATED: moved to*args, **kw)

Raw print to sys.__stdout__, otherwise identical interface to print().*args, **kw)

Raw print to sys.__stderr__, otherwise identical interface to print().'stdout')

DEPRECATED, moved to