This documentation covers a development version of IPython. The development version may differ significantly from the latest stable release.
This documentation covers IPython versions 6.0 and higher. Beginning with version 6.0, IPython stopped supporting compatibility with Python versions lower than 3.3 including all versions of Python 2.7.
If you are looking for an IPython version compatible with Python 2.7, please use the IPython 5.x LTS release and refer to its documentation (LTS is the long term support release).
This release was quickly made to restore compatibility with Python 2.4, which version 0.9 accidentally broke. No new features were introduced, other than some additional testing support for internal use.
All furl files and security certificates are now put in a read-only directory named ~/.ipython/security.
A single function
IPython.genutilsthat determines the user’s IPython directory in a robust manner.
Laurent’s WX application has been given a top-level script called ipython-wx, and it has received numerous fixes. We expect this code to be architecturally better integrated with Gael’s WX ‘ipython widget’ over the next few releases.
The Editor synchronization work by Vivian De Smedt has been merged in. This code adds a number of new editor hooks to synchronize with editors under Windows.
A new, still experimental but highly functional, WX shell by Gael Varoquaux. This work was sponsored by Enthought, and while it’s still very new, it is based on a more cleanly organized architecture of the various IPython components. We will continue to develop this over the next few releases as a model for GUI components that use IPython.
Another GUI frontend, Cocoa based (Cocoa is the OSX native GUI framework), authored by Barry Wark. Currently the WX and the Cocoa ones have slightly different internal organizations, but the whole team is working on finding what the right abstraction points are for a unified codebase.
As part of the frontend work, Barry Wark also implemented an experimental event notification system that various ipython components can use. In the next release the implications and use patterns of this system regarding the various GUI options will be worked out.
IPython finally has a full test system, that can test docstrings with IPython-specific functionality. There are still a few pieces missing for it to be widely accessible to all users (so they can run the test suite at any time and report problems), but it now works for the developers. We are working hard on continuing to improve it, as this was probably IPython’s major Achilles heel (the lack of proper test coverage made it effectively impossible to do large-scale refactoring). The full test suite can now be run using the iptest command line program.
The notion of a task has been completely reworked. An
ITaskinterface has been created. This interface defines the methods that tasks need to implement. These methods are now responsible for things like submitting tasks and processing results. There are two basic task types:
IPython.kernel.task.StringTask(this is the old
Taskobject, but renamed) and the new
IPython.kernel.task.MapTask, which is based on a function.
A new interface,
IPython.kernel.mapper.IMapperhas been defined to standardize the idea of a
mapmethod. This interface has a single
mapmethod that has the same syntax as the built-in
map. We have also defined a
mapperfactory interface that creates objects that implement
IPython.kernel.mapper.IMapperfor different controllers. Both the multiengine and task controller now have mapping capabilities.
The parallel function capabilities have been reworks. The major changes are that i) there is now an
@parallelmagic that creates parallel functions, ii) the syntax for multiple variable follows that of
map, iii) both the multiengine and task controller now have a parallel function implementation.
All of the parallel computing capabilities from
ipython1-devhave been merged into IPython proper. This resulted in the following new subpackages:
As part of merging in the
setup.pyscript and friends have been completely refactored. Now we are checking for dependencies using the approach that matplotlib uses.
The documentation has been completely reorganized to accept the documentation from
We have switched to using Foolscap for all of our network protocols in
IPython.kernel. This gives us secure connections that are both encrypted and authenticated.
We have a brand new
COPYING.txtfiles that describes the IPython license and copyright. The biggest change is that we are putting “The IPython Development Team” as the copyright holder. We give more details about exactly what this means in this file. All developer should read this and use the new banner in all IPython source code files.
sh profile: ./foo runs foo as system command, no need to do !./foo anymore
String lists now support
sort(field, nums = True)method (to easily sort system command output). Try it with
a = !ls -l ; a.sort(1, nums=1).
‘%cpaste foo’ now assigns the pasted block as string list, instead of string
The ipcluster script now run by default with no security. This is done because the main usage of the script is for starting things on localhost. Eventually when ipcluster is able to start things on other hosts, we will put security back.
‘cd –foo’ searches directory history for string foo, and jumps to that dir. Last part of dir name is checked first. If no matches for that are found, look at the whole path.
The Windows installer has been fixed. Now all IPython scripts have
.batversions created. Also, the Start Menu shortcuts have been updated.
The colors escapes in the multiengine client are now turned off on win32 as they don’t print correctly.
IPython.kernel.scripts.ipenginescript was exec’ing mpi_import_statement incorrectly, which was leading the engine to crash when mpi was enabled.
A few subpackages had missing
The documentation is only created if Sphinx is found. Previously, the
setup.pyscript would fail if it was missing.
cdcompletion has been disabled again (it was enabled in 0.8.4) as it caused problems on certain platforms.
Backwards incompatible changes¶
clusterfileoptions of the ipcluster command has been removed as it was not working and it will be replaced soon by something much more robust.
IPython.kernelconfiguration now properly find the user’s IPython directory.
In ipapi, the
make_user_ns()function has been replaced with
make_user_namespaces(), to support dict subclasses in namespace creation.
IPython.kernel.client.Taskhas been renamed
IPython.kernel.client.StringTaskto make way for new task types.
The keyword argument
stylehas been renamed
Renamed the values that the rename
distkeyword argument can have from
IPython has a larger set of dependencies if you want all of its capabilities. See the
setup.pyscript for details.
The constructors for
IPython.kernel.client.TaskClientno longer take the (ip,port) tuple. Instead they take the filename of a file that contains the FURL for that client. If the FURL file is in your IPYTHONDIR, it will be found automatically and the constructor can be left empty.
The asynchronous clients in
IPython.kernel.asyncclientare now created using the factory functions
get_task_client(). These return a
Deferredto the actual client.
The command line options to
ipenginehave changed to reflect the new Foolscap network protocol and the FURL files. Please see the help for these scripts for details.
The configuration files for the kernel have changed because of the Foolscap stuff. If you were using custom config files before, you should delete them and regenerate new ones.
Changes merged in from IPython1¶
setupegg.pyscripts. Because Twisted and zope.interface are now easy installable, we can declare them as dependencies in our setupegg.py script.
IPython is now compatible with Twisted 2.5.0 and 8.x.
Added a new example of how to use
Initial draft of a process daemon in
ipython1.daemon. This has not been merged into IPython and is still in
TaskControllernow has methods for getting the queue status.
TaskResultobjects not have information about how long the task took to run.
We are attaching additional attributes to exceptions
(_ipython_*)that we use to carry additional info around.
New top-level module
asyncclientthat has asynchronous versions (that return deferreds) of the client classes. This is designed to users who want to run their own Twisted reactor.
All the clients in
clientare now based on Twisted. This is done by running the Twisted reactor in a separate thread and using the
blockingCallFromThread()function that is in recent versions of Twisted.
Functions can now be pushed/pulled to/from engines using
Gather/scatter are now implemented in the client to reduce the work load of the controller and improve performance.
Complete rewrite of the IPython docuementation. All of the documentation from the IPython website has been moved into docs/source as restructured text documents. PDF and HTML documentation are being generated using Sphinx.
New developer oriented documentation: development guidelines and roadmap.
ChangeLoghas been changed to a more useful
changes.txtfile that is organized by release and is meant to provide something more relevant for users.
Created a proper
MANIFEST.infile to create source distributions.
Fixed a bug in the
MultiEngineinterface. Previously, multi-engine actions were being collected with a
fireononeerrback=1. This meant that methods were returning before all engines had given their results. This was causing extremely odd bugs in certain cases. To fix this problem, we have 1) set
fireononeerrback=0to make sure all results (or exceptions) are in before returning and 2) introduced a
CompositeErrorexception that wraps all of the engine exceptions. This is a huge change as it means that users will have to catch
CompositeErrorrather than the actual exception.
Backwards incompatible changes¶
All names have been renamed to conform to the lowercase_with_underscore convention. This will require users to change references to all names like
Previously, methods like
**kwargs. This was becoming a problem as we weren’t able to introduce new keyword arguments into the API. Now these methods simple take a dict or sequence. This has also allowed us to get rid of the
pullAll(). These things are now handled with the
targetskeyword argument that defaults to
MultiEngineClient.magicTargetshas been renamed to
All methods in the MultiEngine interface now accept the optional keyword argument
Renamed the top-level module from
Most methods in the multiengine interface now raise a
CompositeErrorexception that wraps the user’s exceptions, rather than just raising the raw user’s exception.